亚洲巨乳

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                    In the 1960s and 1970s, classic social psychological studies were conducted thatprovided evidence that even normal, decent people can engage in acts of extreme crueltywhen instructed to do so by others. However, in an essay published November 20 in theopen access journal PLOS Biology, Professors Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher revisitthese studies' conclusions and explain how awful acts involve not just obedience, butenthusiasm too---challenging the long-held belief that human beings are "programmed"for conformity.
                    This belief can be traced back to two landmark empirical research ( 實證研究 )programs conducted by Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo in the 1960s and early1970s. Milgram's "Obedience to Authority" research is widely believed to show thatpeople blindly conform to the instructions of an authority figure, and Zimbardo'sStanfordPrison Experiment (SPE) is commonly understood to show that people will take onabusive roles uncritically.
                However, Professor Haslam, from the University of Queensland, argues that tyrannydoes not result from blind conformity to rules and roles. Rather, it is a creative act offollowership, resulting from identifying with authorities who represent vicious (惡意的 )acts as virtuous ( 善良的 ) .
                    "Decent people participate in horrific acts not because they become passive,mindless functionaries (公職人員 ) who do not know what they are doing, but ratherbecause they come to believe--typically under the influence of those in authority--thatwhat they are doing is right," Professor Haslam explained.
                    Professor Reicher, of the University of St Andrews, added that it is not that theywere blind to the evil acts they were committing, but rather that they knew what they weredoing, and believed it to be right.
                    These conclusions were partly informed by Professors Haslam and Reicher's ownprison experiment, conducted in 2002 in collaboration with the BBC. The study generatedthree findings. First, participants did not conform automatically to their assigned role;second, they only acted in terms of group membership to the extent that they identifiedwith the group; and finally, group identity did not mean that people simply accepted theirassigned position--it also empowered them to resist it.
                    Although Zimbardo and Milgram's findings remain highly influential,professor Haslam argues that their conclusions do not hold up well under close empirical scrutiny.
                   Professor Reicher concludes that tyranny does not flourish because offendersare helpless and ignorant; it flourishes because they are convinced that they are doingsomething worthy.

                1.[單選題]Which is wrong about the three findings of the experiment?
                • A.Participants did not conform to their assigned role mindlessly.
                • B.Participants only act in groups to prove that they are a team.
                • C.Group identity empowers participants to reject their roles.
                • D.Group identity can be achieved when participants accomplish a task.
                2.[單選題]What's Professor Haslam's finding about tyranny?
                • A.It comes right from the evil deep in the heart of humans.
                • B.It's a new way of followership to identify with authorities.
                • C.It can be found mostly in war-troubled countries.
                • D.It results from blind conformity to rules and roles.
                3.[單選題]What does the author mean by saying "human beings are 'programmed'for conformity" (Line 6, Para. I)?
                • A.Human beings are designed to defy the instructions of others.
                • B.Human beings are forced to listen to the advice of others.
                • C.Human beings are ordered to take advice of others.
                • D.Human beings are made to be obedient to others.
                4.[單選題]How do Professors Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher explain human's cruelty?
                • A.Human beings are programmed for conformity.
                • B.Even normal, decent people can engage in cruel activities.
                • C.Not only conformity, but zeal contributes to cruelty.
                • D.People are convincible when instructed by authorities.
                5.[單選題]How does Professor Haslam think Milgram and Zimbardo's findings?
                • A.They are classic studies and should not be doubted.
                • B.They cannot stand a strict test.
                • C.They need to follow the current trend.
                • D.They have to be revised and testified
                參考答案: D,B,D,C,B